Hazaribag is 93 km. from Ranchi by road. It is located on N.H.33. The district of Hazaribag is situated in the north east part of North Chotanagpur Division. The boundary of this district consists of districts of Gaya (BIHAR) and Koderma in the north, Giridih and Bokaro in the east, Ramgarh in the south and Chatra in the west. The districts of Koderma, Chatra, Ramgarh and Giridih have been bifurcated from this district. The district of Hazaribag is situated in the north east part of North Chotanagpur Division.
The district of Hazaribag is a part of Chotanagpur plateau. This area is full of several plateaus, mountains and valleys. There are three natural divisions of this district – Medium Plateau, Lower Plateau and Damodar Valley. The district headquarter is a part of medium plateau, which is situated at the height of about 2,000 ft from the sea level. Except the western part of the medium plateau, the whole area is surrounded by the lower plateau. The height of lower plateau is about 1,300 ft above the sea level.Damodar Valley is in the southern part of this district where Ramgarh town is situated which is about 1,000 ft below the districts headquarter.
The main mountains of Hazaribag are Chandwara and Jillinja and their heights are about 2816 and 3057 ft respectively. The main rivers of this district are Damodar and Barakar. About 45% area of this district is forest area. The forest area of this district is full of medicinal plants and trees. Due to negligence and lack of awareness they are on the verge of extinct. Leopards, bears, jackals and foxes etc. freely move in these forests. In the winter season several foreign birds visit these forests areas.
Due to surroundings of mountains and forests this area has been known as Jharkhand from the ancient time. This area is the native place of tribal people. At the time of Mahabharata, King Jarasandh of Magadh Region ruled this area. Later on King Mahapadmanand Ugrasen defeated Jarasandh and occupied this area.
This area is very important from the religious point of view. People from different areas visit the religious, historical and archaeological places of this district. The 23rd Tirthankara Parasnath met his holy end here. In his memory there is a temple on the top of Parasnath Mountain. Presently it is in Giridih district. After the end of the ‘Gupta’ dynasty in 5th A.D. a State named Chotanagpur was established. King Phanimukta was its first ruler. At the time of Mughal Empire, King Akbar sent a troop under the leadership of Shahbaj Khan to defeat the local ruler of this region.
This district also played a leading role in Freedom Movement. In 1857 Ramgarh Battalion revolted against the English rule. The Non Co-Operation Movement of 1920 moved the sentiments of local people tremendously. Mahatma Gandhi also visited this area in 1925.
There are several ores and minerals in the naturally rich and beautiful district of Hazaribag. Mica and Coal are the main minerals. These minerals are very important from industrial point of view. China clay and limestone are also found in this district.
Most parts of this district are full of forests and stones. The cultivable land can be divided into two parts namely – Upper land and Lower land. The lands situated on the banks of rivers are fertile. One can get good crop even after using lesser amount of fertilizers in these lands. But the upper land is barren. A huge amount of fertilizers and irrigation is required for cultivation in these lands. Rabi and Kharif crops are generally sown here.
Irrigation facility is not adequate in this district due to hilly area. There are small natural rivulets, which are generally used for irrigation. There is no other natural source of irrigation. After independence government has tried and is still trying to solve the problem of irrigation. For irrigation wells and pump sets are used. Damodar Valley Project is also meant for irrigation in this area but these measures are not sufficient. Generally the farmers depend on rain for their cultivation. When there is scarcity of rain, people of this area usually face the problem of drinking water.
Due to mountains, forests, hills, rivers and valleys etc. the communication by road and rails are tedious and tiresome in this district. Much time is consumed for the travel. People of this area live in fear and terror due to extremist activities. Administration is trying its best to cope with this problem.